The 2016 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, were held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 5 August to 21 August 2016. Rio de Janeiro was announced the host city of these Games at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009.
|Voting results for the 2016 Summer Olympic Games|
|City||Country||Round 1||Round 2||Round 3|
|Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||26||46||66|
Venues and infrastructure
Barra da Tijuca hosted most of the venues of the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2016. The rest were located in three other zones: Copacabana Beach, Maracanã and Deodoro; Barra da Tijuca also housed the Olympic Village.
Otherwise, the Rio's historical downtown is involved in a large-scale urban waterfront revitalization project called Porto Maravilha. It covers a five million square meters area centrally located. The project aims to redevelop the port area increasing the city center attractiveness as a whole and enhances Rio’s competitiveness position in the global economy. The urban renovation involves: 700 km of public networks for water supply, sanitation, drainage, electricity, gas and telecom; 4 km of tunnels; 70 km of roads; 650 km² of sidewalks; 17 km of bike path; 15.000 trees; 3 plants for sanitation treatment
Besides the Maracanã Stadium and Engenhão, the football matches took place in Salvador (Arena Fonte Nova), São Paulo (Arena de São Paulo), Belo Horizonte (Estádio Mineirão) and Brasília (Estádio Nacional de Brasília). All these stadiums were also used in the FIFA World Cup 2014 except by the Morumbi Stadium which was replaced by Arena de São Paulo Stadium.
Renovations of the Sambadrome Marquês de Sapucaí were completed in February 2012. In March 2012 Rio 2016 selected the winning design for its golf course. The Brazilian government will be investing $17 billion in funding for mass transit infrastructure that will help in the preparations for the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympics.
The Rio 2016 Coordination Commission most recently visited the city in June 2012.
On June 26th, 2011 it was reported on AroundTheRings.com that Roderlei Generali, the COO of the Rio De Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games, resigned just one year after taking the job at ROOC. This comes just five months after CCO Flavio Pestana quit for personal reasons.
The Olympic torch was lit on 21 April 2016, after which it travelled via Switzerland to Brasília, Brazil. At the hands of around 12,000 torchbearers in Brazil in 95 days, the torch finally arrived in Maracanã Stadium for the opening ceremony on 5 August. The torch constantly conveyed a message of sustainability, which was followed as the theme of the entire Olympiad.
The main messages of the Olympic torch for Rio de Janeiro 2016 were dynamic movement, innovation, and Brazilian flavour. The upper part of the torch was made out of five moving segments, which were able to expand vertically when the torch was lit up. These different segments were representative of the effort of the individual athletes. These segments also showed different aspects of the natural landscape of Brazil and Rio de Janeiro, including the bright sky, the mountains, the waving sea, and the Copacabana promenades. The lower part of the torch was white patterned with small triangles, as a nod to the three Olympic values of excellence, friendship, and respect. The torch itself was created out of recycled aluminium and resin, signifying the message of sustainability, a theme carried throughout the entire Olympiad. The torch was designed by the studio Chelles & Hayashi Design. This studio was chosen by a multidisciplinary jury, leaving 75 other agencies behind them.
The torch was lit on 21 April 2016, in Olympia, Greece. After this, it followed a six-day relay to the Olympic Stadium in Athens, Greece, where a formal hand-over ceremony was held. Until 2 May, the flame was kept in Geneva and Lausanne, Switzerland, as the base of the International Olympic Committee and the Olympic Museum. After this, the flame travelled to Brasília, Brazil, where the official torch relay started on 3 May. After this, the torch relayed across around 12,000 torchbearers throughout Brazil, to arrive in the Maracanã Stadium for the opening ceremony on 5 August.
- Main article: Opening ceremony
The opening ceremony on 5 August was to convey a message of peace across the world. The ceremony conveyed a message of sustainability of the planet and showed what can be done to save the planet. Aside from Brazilian history, the opening ceremony also celebrated dance and music.
The 2016 Summer Olympic program featured 28 sports and a total of 38 disciplines. There were two open spots for sports and initially seven sports began the bidding for inclusion in the 2016 program. Baseball and softball, which were dropped from the program in 2005, karate, squash, golf, wake boarding, roller sports, and rugby union all applied to be included. Leaders of the seven sports held presentations in front of the IOC executive board in June 2009.
In August, the executive board initially gave its approval to rugby sevens—a seven-man version of rugby union—by a majority vote, thus removing baseball, roller sports, and squash from contention. Among the remaining three—golf, karate, and softball—the board approved golf as a result of consultation. A decision regarding the remaining two sports was made on October 9, 2009, the final day of the 121st IOC Session at which Rio de Janeiro was named as host. A new system was in place at this Session; a sport now needs only a simple majority from the full IOC for approval rather than the two-thirds majority previously required.
On October 9, 2009 the IOC voted to include rugby sevens and golf on the program for the Games in Rio. The other 26 sports were also confirmed with a large majority of the votes. International Golf Federation executive director Antony Scanlon told Olympic news outlet Around the Rings that the top players, including Tiger Woods and Annika Sörenstam, would show their continued support of golf's Olympic involvement by participating in the events.
In May 2012, the International Sailing Federation announced that windsurfing would be removed from the 2016 Olympic sailing programme and replaced by kitesurfing.
In the Paralympics, triathlon was held as a para-sport for the first time.
The Rio 2016 symbol resembles five figures – red, black, yellow, green and blue – embraced at the arms and in a triple hug representing the Sugarloaf Mountain. The logo was designed based on four pillars: contagious energy, harmonious diversity, exuberant nature and Olympic spirit. The logo was designed by Rio agency Tatil in a race involving 139 agencies. According to IOC President Jacques Rogge, the logo really reflects the vision of Rio de Janeiro and Brazil for these Games. The logo has been noted as evoking Henri Matisse's painting Dance, in addition to its use of colours found in Brazilian flag. The emblem was unveiled at 10 pm on December 31, 2010, during the Réveillon party in the Copacabana Beach.
On June 11, 2010, the federal government launched a program to protect the tenders for work in preparation for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games against the possibility of fraud. The plan, known as Jogando Limpo (Fair Playing or Playing It Clean), includes a series of guidelines and nuggets of advice so that the government institutions, and also the tax authorities and common citizens themselves, may identify and denounce attempts at fraud against the tenders. The program, which was launched by the Ministries for Justice and for Sport, also plans the establishment of a group dedicating to monitoring tenders, to protect them against the threat of fraud and also to avoid delays in construction work.
This initiative, also boosted by the General Financial Controller of the Union (Controladoria Geral da União), also plans a campaign to make the people aware of the need to pay attention to possible fraud and to always denounce the cases. The program emphasizes measures against cartels and possible agreements between competing companies to set prices above market levels, in an attempt to raise the value of the contracts with the state. "Nothing can be worse than someone taking advantage of these two great opportunities to commit crimes. This is a world phenomenon," said the Minister for Justice, Luiz Paulo Barreto, during the ceremony to launch the program.
"The businesspeople could be entering with an agreement on prices, in order to compete in these tenders. This is something that needs to be tackled. We need to promote fair play also in our tenders," Barreto added. "Fair play is something we would expect from a country intending to host events of this size," he added. Barreto also said that, between 2007 and 2010, there were a total of 265 search and seizure warrants issued in Brazil to tackle the crime of cartel formation. In the same period over 100 people were preventively arrested for the same crime, and currently an additional 251 people are being investigated.
Since the award of the 2016 Olympics to Rio de Janeiro, the city's crime problems have received more attention. A police helicopter was shot down over a favela during one of the city's many drug wars, and the pilot was killed in the incident. Rio's mayor has admitted that there are "big issues" facing the city in securing the Games from violence, however, he also states that such concerns and issues were presented to the IOC throughout the bidding process. The governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro also highlighted the fact that London faced security problems with a terrorist attack occurring on the day following the IOC session that chose the city to host the 2012 Olympic Games.
The IOC, however, has expressed optimism with allowing the city and the nation of Brazil to address these concerns. "Seven years is enough time for Rio de Janeiro to clean up its crime problem," the IOC said. IOC spokesman Mark Adams told The Associated Press "we have confidence in their capacity to deliver a safe Games in seven years." "Security is of course a very important aspect of any Olympic Games no matter where it is in the world. This is of course entirely under the national, regional and city authorities." Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, former president of Brazil, has noted that the city has hosted other high-profile events without major incident, for example the 2007 Pan American Games.
Rio de Janeiro planned to pacify local neighbourhoods or favelas. Community-based Police Pacification Units (UPPs) were used to combine trust-building in individual communities, through the use of street patrols and civic work. Moreover, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, homicides have fallen to the lowest level since 1991, indicating the success of Brazil's "pacification" project implemented for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics. The Regional Institute of Public Safety reported that the homicide rate of Rio de Janeiro for the first five months of 2012 was at its lowest in the past 21 years, with 10.9 homicides for every 100,000 habitants. Nonetheless, despite the decline in homicides and human rights abuses, the Human Rights Watch urged Brazil to investigate extrajudicial killings.
|79||Trinidad and Tobago||0||0||1||1|
|79||United Arab Emirates||0||0||1||1|
- FIRST RIO 2016™ SPORTS VENUE OPENS TO THE PUBLIC
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- Billions for Brazilian Public Transport; Bach Talks Bid; Crosby Out for Worlds
- IOC Coordination Commission concludes third visit to Rio
- Another Exec Quits Rio Olympics
- Golf among seven sports seeking inclusion in 2016 Games. ESPN (April 25, 2008). Retrieved on August 20, 2008.
- "Olympic Leaders Approve Golf and Rugby for 2016 Summer Games", Fox News, August 13, 2009. Retrieved on October 1, 2009.
- Olympics 2016: IOC Approves Golf And Rugby Sevens To Be Included In Rio De Janeiro Games. In July 2010, Clube de Regatas Vasco da Gama's stadium, São Januário, was chosen to be the home of rugby at the Olympics. , World News , Sky News. News.sky.com. Retrieved on March 15, 2010.
- Rio 2016 head want Olympics Beach Soccer. beachsoccer.com. Retrieved on August 19, 2011.
- Beach Soccer takes aim at Rio 2016. beachsoccer.com. Retrieved on August 19, 2011.
- Kiteboarding to replace windsurfing at 2016 Rio Olympics. BBC News. Retrieved on 10 May 2012.
- 2016 Summer Olympics Logo: Design and History. Famouslogos.us (28 July 2011). Retrieved on 2011-07-28.
- Anto-fraud plan in Brazil
- Rio gang violence amid Olympics safety concerns. Presstv.ir. Retrieved on March 15, 2010.
- Rio's mayor expresses safety concerns for 2016 Olympics , ksdk.com , St. Louis, MO. ksdk.com. Retrieved on March 15, 2010.
- Wilson, Stephen. "IOC confident in Rio despite new wave of violence", The Boston Globe, 20 October 2009. Retrieved on 30 July 2012.
- Olympic Newsdesk — IOC Confident in Rio; Obama Addresses Critics. Aroundtherings.com (October 21, 2009). Retrieved on March 15, 2010.
- "IOC show confidence in Brazil efforts", ESPN, 20 October 2009. Retrieved on 30 July 2012.
- The Daily Advance. The Daily Advance. Retrieved on March 15, 2010.
- Pacifying Rio’s Favelas. latintelligence.com. Retrieved on June 22, 2011.
- Knott, Tracey. "Rio de Janeiro Homicides Reach 21-Year Low", 29 June 2012. Retrieved on 29 June 2012.
- "Homicidios en Río de Janeiro llegan a su nivel más bajo desde 1991", 27 June 2012. Retrieved on 29 June 2012.
- Stone, Hannah. "Human Rights Watch Praises, Criticizes Rio Govt", 19 June 2012. Retrieved on 29 June 2012.
- Logos - A collection of logos featuring this event.
- Mascots - The official mascots of this Olympics'.